She mentions Theresa Wiseman
(Wiseman, 1996), a nursing scholar, who describes empathy in the context of four main qualities:
(1) Perspective taking
: a willingness and ability to try to see situations/experience as others may see them. "Stepping into another person's shoes."
(2) Bearing witness
: to step into that situation/experience without judgement or otherwise dismissive behaviour.
(3) Understanding feelings
: this of course means we've spent time feeling our own feelings so that, in the moment, we can put them aside while being guided by what they taught us.
(4) Communicate accordingly
: based on our "read" of those feelings, we're able to go beyond recognition, and toward mindfully communicating our understanding. Capitalism
So after the industrial revolution nearly everything was made by machine and coming out of a factory. People became 'hired hands
' to assist the machines. Industrial factories disconnected us from and took away the empathy with our lands and neighbours. The environment was changing, our place in it, and our stories were changing too (Conaway, 2015).
A capitalist economy had taken hold of the world. A new way of working, a new system, that drove a new level of competition. The ideology was that competition drove for innovation and progress, in turn driving economic growth. This meant empathy with your fellow neighbour no longer had it's need, a dog-eat-dog mentality set in. Factories scaled and people poured into factories for work, business grew and formed huge industrial organisations.
Question was how to maintain and steer all this productivity? And then 'Management
' was created (Conaway, 2015). Reflection:
I think it's become much clearer in the twenty-first century what the industrial age is and was, where it started and how it is ending or transcending. I felt strongly from the moment I started working straight from art school in 2000 that there was something really 'wrong' with organisational management, and every year since 2000 something has radically changed, evolved or revolutionised our industry. I have been freelance for nearly twelve years but as I see this transformation happening I am drawn back to being a part of it, that is why I joined Hyper Island for the Digital Media Management
course. Eras of Management Rita Mcgrath
proposes three era's of management we've seen since the industrial revolution - Execution, expertise and empathy
. She believes that 'Organisations as Machine
' cast long shadows over how today's management are run. Managers still assume that 'stability'
is the normal state of affairs and 'change'
is the unusual state (McGrath, 2014).
With the rise of the industrial revolution, organisations gained scale, to coordinate owners needed to depend on employing 'managers'. Their focus was wholly on execution
of mass production, and managerial solutions such as specialisation of labour, standardised processes, quality control, workflow planning, and rudimentary accounting (McGrath, 2014).
Thinker Adam Smith
, born in 1723, ideas on the division of labour came into their own here, as he laid the foundations of the classical free market economy and wrote about how rational self-interest and competition can lead to economic prosperity (Smith, 1723).
Throughout the 1800s knowledge was being accumulated about what worked in organisational management. Business schools were being born on management, one of the most famous in the US was the Wharton School
founded in 1881 by Joseph Wharton
(Wharton, 1881). Later in 1922 another milestone, the Harvard Business Review
was founded, these marked that management was a growing discipline and evolving theory.
By mid twentieth century, the next phase of management was expertise
. This was a period of huge growth in theories of management as the industry's organisations grew more complex. Many theories were imported from from areas of sociology
. Statistical and mathematical insights imported usually from military uses. Then later attempts to bring science into management, including theory of constraints, objectives, reengineering, Six Sigma, and the 'waterfall' method of software development
(McGrath, 2014). Peter Drucker
, one of the first management specialists of this time, was invited to take a look inside General Motors
by Chairman Alfred Sloan
(Sloan, 2009), which resulted in Drucker writing his famous book 'Concept of the Corporation' in 1946 (Drucker, no date). Attempting to understand what managing huge complex organisations was all about.
Around this time was the rise of what Drucker dubbed 'knowledge work
'. The value wasn't simply created by workers produce and execute tasks, but value was also created by worker's use of information. When organisations realised the value was not only held in the execution under the factory roof, but the workers that left each day have acquired valuable knowledge, new theories arose that put far more emphasis of motivation and engagement of workers (McGrath, 2014).
American social psychologist, Douglas McGregor
, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise
'. This idea is that executives change from a concept of command and control
to a more facilitating and coaching role
. Although recent studies question the X-Y theory, it still remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management styles and techniques. X-Y theory remains central to organisational development, and to improving organisational culture (McGregor, 1960).